July 11- World Population Day

In 1989, the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Programme recommended that July 11 be observed by the international community as World Population Day to focus attention on the urgency and importance of population issues.

World Population Trends

It took hundreds of thousands of years for the world population to grow to 1 billion – then, in just another 200 years or so, it grew sevenfold. In 2011, the global population reached the 7 billion mark, and today, it stands at about 7.7 billion, and it’s expected to grow to around 8.5 billion in 2030, 9.7 billion in 2050, and 10.9 billion in 2100.

This dramatic growth has been driven largely by increasing numbers of people surviving to reproductive age and has been accompanied by major changes in fertility rates, increasing urbanization, and accelerating migration. These trends will have far-reaching implications for generations to come.

The recent past has seen enormous changes in fertility rates and life expectancy. In the early 1970s, women had on average 4.5 children each; by 2015, total fertility for the world had fallen to below 2.5 children per woman. Meanwhile, average global lifespans have risen, from 64.6 years in the early 1990s to  72.6 years in 2019.

In addition, the world is seeing high levels of urbanization and accelerating migration. 2007 was the first year in which more people lived in urban areas than in rural areas, and by 2050 about 66% of the world population will be living in cities.

These megatrends have far-reaching implications. They affect economic development, employment, income distribution, poverty, and social protections. They also affect efforts to ensure universal access to health care, education, housing, sanitation, water, food, and energy. To more sustainably address the needs of individuals, policymakers must understand how many people are living on the planet, where they are, how old they are, and how many people will come after them.

Theme of 2021

Rights and choices are the answer: Whether baby boom or bust, the solution to shifting fertility rates lies in prioritizing all people’s reproductive health and rights.

In this second year of COVID-19, we are suspended in an in-between state, where parts of the world are emerging from the deep recesses of the pandemic while others are locked in battle with the coronavirus as access to vaccines remains a distant, deadly reality. 

The pandemic has compromised health care systems, particularly in the area of sexual and reproductive health. It also exposed and exacerbated gender-based inequities: gender-based violence increased under lockdown, as did the risk of child marriage and female genital mutilation as programs to abolish the harmful practices were disrupted. Significant numbers of women left the labor force – their often low-paying jobs were eliminated, or caregiving responsibilities for children learning remotely or for homebound older people increased – destabilizing their finances, not just for now but in the long run. 

Against this backdrop, many countries are expressing growing concern over changing fertility rates. Historically, alarmism over fertility rates has led to abrogations of human rights.

UNFPA advises against reactionary policy responses, which can be extremely harmful if they violate rights, health, and choices. The agency emphasizes that women must be empowered educationally, economically, and politically to exercise choice over their bodies and fertility. 

Some Facts: 

1- Despite constitutional guarantees of gender equality in many countries worldwide, on average, women enjoy just 75% of the legal rights of men.

2- Quantitative surveys suggest that between 4% – 29% of women who use contraception do so without their husbands’ or partners’ knowledge.

3- Only 55% of women have the power to make their own decisions about their bodies should be a wake-up call to governments, policymakers, and development institutions.

4- An estimated 58% of female victims of murder were killed by an intimate partner or member of their own family, amounting to 137 women every day. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated this—and violence against women has been deemed the “shadow pandemic.”

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By: Shristi Banerjee

Roya Institute Global Representative- India

Practicing Advocate, High Court of Jharkhand (India)